Yellow Fever

Marengo CIMS Hospital is dedicated to providing comprehensive healthcare services and fostering patient well-being. As part of our commitment to patient education, we have developed the Marengo CIMS Hospital Medical Encyclopedia—an invaluable online resource designed to empower patients with knowledge about various medical conditions, treatments, and preventive measures. This encyclopedia serves as a trusted and accessible repository of medical information, allowing patients to make informed decisions regarding their health and collaborate more effectively with healthcare professionals.


Yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes, poses a significant public health concern globally. While India has not reported any recent outbreaks, understanding the signs, symptoms, classification, causes, risk factors, types, diagnostic tests, treatments, complications, and prevention techniques associated with yellow fever is essential. In this article, we will delve into the various aspects of yellow fever.

Signs and Symptoms:

The signs and symptoms of yellow fever can range from mild to severe, and they typically develop in two phases: the acute phase and the toxic phase.

Acute Phase:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea and vomiting

 Toxic Phase:

  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
  • Abdominal pain
  • Dark urine
  • Bleeding (nosebleeds, easy bruising)
  • Organ dysfunction (such as liver and kidney)

What is Yellow Fever?

Yellow fever is a viral infection caused by the yellow fever virus, primarily transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes, particularly the Aedes and Haemagogus species. It is prevalent in certain regions of Africa and South America, but cases in India have been sporadic and linked to travelers visiting endemic areas.

How is Yellow Fever Classified?

Yellow fever can be classified into two types: jungle yellow fever and urban yellow fever.

  • Jungle Yellow Fever: Jungle yellow fever occurs primarily in tropical rainforest areas, where mosquitoes transmit the virus between non-human primates and humans who venture into these regions. It rarely leads to urban outbreaks.
  • Urban Yellow Fever: Urban yellow fever refers to the spread of the virus among humans in densely populated areas, facilitated by mosquitoes that breed in urban settings. This type of transmission can result in larger outbreaks if not properly controlled.

Causes and Triggers

Yellow fever is caused by the yellow fever virus, which belongs to the Flavivirus family. The virus is mainly transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes. When a mosquito carrying the virus bites a person, the virus enters their bloodstream and begins to replicate, leading to infection. Humans do not directly transmit yellow fever to each other.

Risk Factors with Examples

Several risk factors can increase an individual’s susceptibility to yellow fever. These include:

  • Traveling to Endemic Regions: Individuals who travel to or reside in regions with a history of yellow fever outbreaks, especially in Africa and South America, are at a higher risk of exposure to the virus.
  • Lack of Vaccination: Failure to receive the yellow fever vaccine puts individuals at a significant risk, as it is the most effective preventive measure against the disease.
  • Mosquito Exposure: Increased exposure to mosquitoes in areas with a high prevalence of yellow fever-carrying mosquitoes raises the risk of contracting the virus. This can occur in both rural and urban settings.

Types of Yellow Fever

  • Mild Yellow Fever: Some individuals may experience a mild form of yellow fever with mild symptoms that resolve within a few days. These cases often go unnoticed or are misdiagnosed.
  • Severe Yellow Fever: Severe yellow fever occurs in a minority of infected individuals and is characterized by the development of more pronounced symptoms, organ dysfunction, and potentially life-threatening complications.

Diagnostic Tests:

  • Serology: Blood tests can detect the presence of yellow fever antibodies or the virus itself in the bloodstream. These tests help confirm a yellow fever diagnosis.
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): PCR tests are used to identify the genetic material of the yellow fever virus in blood or other body fluids. This method is particularly useful in the early stages of infection.


Currently, no specific antiviral treatment exists for yellow fever. Supportive care is provided to manage symptoms and prevent complications. This may include rest, fluids, pain relief medication, and close monitoring of vital signs.


Severe yellow fever can lead to life-threatening complications, including organ failure, bleeding disorders, and shock. Prompt medical attention is crucial to prevent and manage these complications.

Prevention Techniques:

  • Vaccination: The yellow fever vaccine is highly effective and provides long-term immunity. Individuals traveling to endemic regions should ensure they are vaccinated at least ten days prior to travel.
  • Mosquito Bite Prevention: To reduce the risk of mosquito bites, individuals should use insect repellents, wear protective clothing (long sleeves, pants), and use mosquito nets when necessary. Eliminating mosquito breeding sites, such as stagnant water, is also crucial.

Marengo Asia Hospitals, renowned for its comprehensive healthcare services, stands prepared to handle patients with yellow fever in the unlikely event of an outbreak in India. With a commitment to patient well-being, the network has established protocols and resources to effectively manage and treat individuals affected by this viral disease. In this article, we will explain how Marengo Asia Hospitals would handle patients with yellow fever.

Understanding Yellow Fever:

Yellow fever is a viral illness transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The virus can cause various symptoms, ranging from mild to severe. These can include fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and in more severe cases, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, bleeding, and organ dysfunction.

How Marengo Asia Hospitals Handles Yellow Fever:

  • Specialized Isolation Units: Marengo Asia Hospitals has dedicated isolation units designed to safely isolate and treat patients with infectious diseases like yellow fever. These units are equipped with advanced medical facilities and trained healthcare professionals to provide specialized care.
  • Prompt Diagnosis: Early detection of yellow fever is crucial for effective treatment. The hospitals within Marengo Asia Hospitals have established diagnostic protocols to quickly identify and confirm cases of yellow fever. They utilize blood tests to detect the presence of the virus or antibodies in the patient’s bloodstream.
  • Supportive Care: Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment for yellow fever. However, Marengo Asia Hospitals provides supportive care to manage the symptoms and help patients recover. Supportive care includes measures such as rest, providing fluids to prevent dehydration, and administering medication to alleviate pain and fever.
  • Monitoring and Management of Complications: In severe cases of yellow fever, patients may develop complications such as organ failure or bleeding disorders. The hospitals closely monitor patients’ vital signs, provide appropriate medical interventions, and employ advanced techniques to manage these complications effectively.
  • Collaboration with Public Health Authorities: Marengo Asia Hospitals works closely with public health authorities, such as the local health department, to ensure that appropriate infection control measures and preventive strategies are implemented. This collaboration helps in containing the spread of yellow fever and protecting the wider community.

Prevention Measures

Preventing yellow fever is a crucial aspect of Marengo Asia Hospitals‘ approach. The hospitals educate patients and the general public on preventive measures, including:

  • Vaccination: The yellow fever vaccine is the most effective preventive measure. The hospitals ensure that individuals traveling to or residing in areas at risk for yellow fever receive the vaccine in a timely manner.
  • Mosquito Bite Prevention: The hospitals emphasize the importance of protecting oneself from mosquito bites. This includes using mosquito repellents, wearing protective clothing (long sleeves, pants), and using bed nets in areas where mosquitoes are present.
  • Public Health Campaigns: Marengo Asia Hospitals actively participates in public health campaigns aimed at raising awareness about yellow fever and promoting preventive measures. These campaigns educate communities on mosquito control, personal protection, and the importance of vaccination.

While yellow fever is not endemic to India, Marengo Asia Hospitals is well-prepared to handle potential cases and provide the necessary care and support to patients. With their expertise, advanced facilities, and a commitment to public health, the network ensures that individuals with yellow fever receive the best possible care, while also focusing on prevention and community education to minimize the risk of the disease spreading.


Contact Us

Marengo CIMS Hospital
Off Science City Road, Sola, Ahmedabad – 380060
Gujarat, INDIA

24×7 Helpline +91 70 69 00 00 00
Phone: 079 4805 1200 or 1008
+91 79 2771 2771 or 72
Fax: +91 79 2771 2770
Mobile: +91 98250 66664 or +91 98250 66668
Ambulance: +91 98244 50000