Achalasia, also known as esophageal achalasia, achalasia cardia ,cardiospasm, and esophageal aperistalsis is a disorder of the esophagus (food pipe) in which the nerves and muscles do not work properly, causing swallowing difficulties, sometimes chest pain, regurgitation (food coming back in throat) and its consequent coughing and breathing problems (if food gets into the lungs). The cause of achalasia is unknown; however, there is degeneration of the esophageal muscles and, more importantly, the nerves that control the muscles.