Marengo CIMS Hospital is dedicated to providing comprehensive healthcare services and fostering patient well-being. As part of our commitment to patient education, we have developed the Marengo CIMS Hospital Medical Encyclopedia—an invaluable online resource designed to empower patients with knowledge about various medical conditions, treatments, and preventive measures. This encyclopedia serves as a trusted and accessible repository of medical information, allowing patients to make informed decisions regarding their health and collaborate more effectively with healthcare professionals.


Retinoblastoma is a rare form of eye cancer that primarily affects children. In India, where early detection and treatment are crucial, understanding the signs, diagnosis, and treatment options for retinoblastoma is essential. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of retinoblastoma, including its signs and symptoms, classification, causes, risk factors, types, diagnostic tests, treatments, complications, prevention techniques, and examples of public figures in India who have been affected by this condition.

Signs and Symptoms:

The signs and symptoms of retinoblastoma may include:

Leukocoria: Also known as “cat’s eye reflex,” this occurs when a white or yellowish pupil reflection is seen in photos, instead of the typical red-eye reflection.

Strabismus: Misaligned or crossed eyes.

Poor Vision: Decreased vision or changes in visual acuity.

Eye Redness and Irritation: Unexplained redness, swelling, or discharge from the eye.

Changes in the Color of the Iris: A white or yellowish coloration in the iris.

What is Retinoblastoma?

Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor that develops in the retina, the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye. It primarily affects young children, typically before the age of 5. Retinoblastoma can occur in one or both eyes and, if left untreated, can spread to other parts of the body.

How is Retinoblastoma Classified?

Retinoblastoma can be classified based on various factors, including:

Unilateral vs. Bilateral: Unilateral retinoblastoma affects one eye, while bilateral retinoblastoma affects both eyes.

Sporadic vs. Hereditary: Sporadic retinoblastoma occurs without any known family history, while hereditary retinoblastoma is linked to genetic mutations that can be inherited from parents.

Causes and Triggers:

Retinoblastoma is caused by genetic mutations that affect the normal growth and development of retinal cells. The specific triggers for these mutations are not fully understood, but genetic predisposition and random mutations during fetal development are believed to play a role. In hereditary cases, the condition may be passed down through families.

Risk Factors with Examples:

Several risk factors increase the likelihood of developing retinoblastoma:

1. Hereditary Retinoblastoma: Individuals born with a family history of retinoblastoma are at an increased risk. Approximately 40% of cases are hereditary.
Example: Public figures in India, such as cricketer Yuvraj Singh, have publicly shared their experiences with retinoblastoma and their journeys towards recovery.

2. Age: Retinoblastoma primarily affects young children, with the majority of cases diagnosed before the age of 5.

3. Genetic Mutations: Specific genetic mutations, such as mutations in the RB1 gene, are associated with an increased risk of retinoblastoma.

4. Prior Radiation Therapy: Children who have received radiation therapy for other conditions are at a slightly higher risk of developing retinoblastoma.

Types of Retinoblastoma:

Retinoblastoma can be categorized into different types based on its characteristics and severity:

1. Intraocular Retinoblastoma: This type is confined to the eye and has not spread beyond the retina.

2. Extraocular Retinoblastoma: In rare cases, retinoblastoma may spread outside the eye to nearby tissues, such as the optic nerve or orbit.

Diagnostic Tests and Treatments:
Diagnostic tests for retinoblastoma may include:

1. Ophthalmoscopy: A thorough examination of the eye using specialized instruments to evaluate the retina and detect any abnormalities.

2. Ultrasound: This imaging technique uses sound waves to create images of the eye and assess the extent of the tumor.

3. Biopsy: In some cases, a small sample of tissue may be taken for laboratory analysis to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for retinoblastoma depend on various factors, including the size, location, and extent of the tumor:

1. Chemotherapy: Medications are used to shrink the tumor or control its growth. Chemotherapy can be administered systemically (through the bloodstream) or intra-arterially (directly into the blood vessels supplying the eye).

2. Laser Therapy: Focused laser beams are used to destroy small tumors or seal leaking blood vessels.

2. Cryotherapy: Extreme cold is applied to freeze and destroy tumor cells.

4. Radiation Therapy: High-energy beams are targeted at the tumor to destroy cancer cells. This treatment is used in specific cases and carefully administered due to potential side effects.

5. Enucleation: In severe cases where the tumor cannot be effectively treated while preserving the eye, surgical removal of the eye (enucleation) may be necessary.

Complications and Prevention Techniques:

Complications of retinoblastoma and its treatments may include vision loss, delayed development, and emotional challenges. Prevention of retinoblastoma is not possible, but early detection through routine eye examinations can lead to timely intervention and better treatment outcomes.

Retinoblastoma, a rare and potentially devastating eye cancer that primarily affects children, requires specialized care and treatment. Marengo Asia Hospitals across India is committed to providing comprehensive services for patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma. In this article, we will explore how Marengo Asia Hospitals effectively handles patients with retinoblastoma, including diagnosis, treatment options, multidisciplinary care, emotional support, and the expertise available to manage this condition.

Specialized Expertise:
Marengo Asia Hospitals is equipped with a team of highly skilled healthcare professionals who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of retinoblastoma. Ophthalmologists, pediatric oncologists, and other specialists collaborate to provide comprehensive care for patients of all ages.

Early Diagnosis and Screening:
Early detection of retinoblastoma is crucial for successful treatment outcomes. Marengo Asia Hospitals emphasizes the importance of regular eye screenings, especially for young children, to identify any signs or symptoms of retinoblastoma. Through ophthalmologic examinations, such as ophthalmoscopy and imaging techniques like ultrasound, the healthcare team can accurately diagnose retinoblastoma and determine the appropriate treatment plan.

Tailored Treatment Options:
Marengo Asia Hospitals offers a range of treatment options tailored to each patient’s unique needs and circumstances. Treatment plans are developed based on factors such as the stage of the disease, the size and location of the tumor, and the potential impact on vision and overall health. The available treatment options include:

1. Chemotherapy: Medications are used to shrink tumors and control the growth of cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be administered systemically (through the bloodstream) or intra-arterially (directly into the blood vessels supplying the eye).

2. Laser Therapy: Focused laser beams are used to target and destroy small tumors or seal leaking blood vessels within the eye.

3. Cryotherapy: The application of extreme cold (using liquid nitrogen or a freezing probe) is used to freeze and destroy cancer cells.

4. Radiation Therapy: High-energy beams, such as external beam radiation or brachytherapy, may be used in specific cases to target and destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy is carefully administered, taking into consideration the age of the child and potential long-term side effects.

5. Enucleation: In cases where the tumor cannot be effectively treated while preserving the eye or when the disease has advanced significantly, surgical removal of the eye (enucleation) may be necessary. Marengo Asia Hospitals ensures that patients and their families receive comprehensive pre- and post-operative care during this challenging process.

Multidisciplinary Care and Emotional Support:
Marengo Asia Hospitals understands that managing retinoblastoma requires more than just medical intervention. A multidisciplinary team, including ophthalmologists, pediatric oncologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers, collaborate to provide holistic care. This approach addresses the physical, emotional, and psychosocial aspects of the patient and their family’s journey. Supportive services may include counseling, support groups, educational resources, and guidance for coping with the challenges associated with retinoblastoma.

Regular Monitoring and Follow-Up:
Following treatment, patients require long-term monitoring to ensure the effectiveness of treatment and to detect any potential recurrences. Marengo Asia Hospitals establishes a follow-up schedule to monitor the patient’s progress, provide ongoing care, and address any concerns or complications that may arise.

Clinical Research and Innovative Approaches:
Marengo Asia Hospitals actively participates in clinical research and stays abreast of the latest advancements in retinoblastoma treatment. By embracing innovative approaches, such as targeted therapies and genetic testing, the network strives to provide the best possible outcomes for patients.

Public Awareness and Support:
Marengo Asia Hospitals plays an active role in raising public awareness about retinoblastoma. Through educational programs, community outreach initiatives, and collaborations with support organizations, they aim to increase knowledge about early detection, treatment options, and the importance of regular eye screenings.

Marengo Asia Hospitals in India is dedicated to providing comprehensive care for patients with retinoblastoma. By leveraging specialized expertise, offering tailored treatment options, providing multidisciplinary care, and prioritizing emotional support, the network ensures that patients and their families receive optimal care throughout their journey. Through ongoing research, public awareness initiatives, and a commitment to improving treatment outcomes, Marengo Asia Hospitals plays a vital role in the management and treatment of retinoblastoma, offering hope and support to patients affected by this condition across India.


Contact Us

Marengo CIMS Hospital
Off Science City Road, Sola, Ahmedabad – 380060
Gujarat, INDIA

24×7 Helpline +91 70 69 00 00 00
Phone: 079 4805 1200 or 1008
+91 79 2771 2771 or 72
Fax: +91 79 2771 2770
Mobile: +91 98250 66664 or +91 98250 66668
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