Marengo CIMS Hospital is dedicated to providing comprehensive healthcare services and fostering patient well-being. As part of our commitment to patient education, we have developed the Marengo CIMS Hospital Medical Encyclopedia—an invaluable online resource designed to empower patients with knowledge about various medical conditions, treatments, and preventive measures. This encyclopedia serves as a trusted and accessible repository of medical information, allowing patients to make informed decisions regarding their health and collaborate more effectively with healthcare professionals.

Introduction :

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 85% of all lung cancer cases. In India, where the burden of lung cancer is significant, understanding the signs, symptoms, classifications, causes, and treatment options for NSCLC is crucial. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of NSCLC in the Indian context, explaining these aspects in simple terms for better understanding.

Signs and Symptoms :

The signs and symptoms of NSCLC may vary from person to person, but common indications include:

  • Persistent cough: A chronic cough that doesn’t go away or worsens over time.
  • Shortness of breath: Difficulty in breathing or feeling breathless, especially with minimal exertion.
  • Chest pain: A persistent or worsening pain in the chest.
  • Fatigue: Feeling excessively tired or weak.
  • Unexplained weight loss: Significant weight loss without trying.
  • Hoarseness: Changes in the voice, such as a raspy or deep voice.
  • Recurrent respiratory infections: Frequent respiratory infections like bronchitis or pneumonia.

Understanding Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) :

Non-small-cell lung cancer is a type of cancer that primarily affects the cells lining the lungs. It is called “non-small-cell” because the cancer cells are larger and appear different from small-cell lung cancer cells under a microscope. NSCLC generally grows and spreads more slowly than small-cell lung cancer.

Classification of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer :

NSCLC is further classified into three main subtypes:

  • Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of NSCLC, often found in non-smokers or former smokers. Adenocarcinoma typically originates in the outer parts of the lungs and can spread to other areas.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinoma occurs in the flat cells lining the air passages of the lungs. It is often associated with smoking and is typically found in the central parts of the lungs.
  • Large cell carcinoma: Large cell carcinoma is a less common subtype that can appear in any part of the lungs. It grows and spreads rapidly and is often diagnosed at an advanced stage.

Causes and Triggers :

The primary cause of NSCLC is long-term exposure to harmful substances, primarily tobacco smoke. In India, where smoking rates remain high, tobacco smoke plays a significant role in the development of lung cancer. Additionally, exposure to secondhand smoke, occupational hazards like asbestos and chemicals, and environmental pollution can also contribute to the risk of NSCLC. 

Risk Factors :

Several factors increase the risk of developing NSCLC, including:

  • Smoking: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of NSCLC. Smokers have a significantly higher risk than non-smokers.
  • Secondhand smoke: Exposure to smoke from others’ cigarettes or tobacco products can increase the risk, particularly in enclosed spaces.
  • Radon exposure: Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that can seep into homes and buildings. Prolonged exposure to high levels of radon can increase the risk of lung cancer.
  • Occupational exposures: Certain occupations, such as construction, mining, and manufacturing, may involve exposure to harmful substances like asbestos, diesel exhaust, and certain chemicals, thereby increasing the risk of lung cancer.
  • Family history: A family history of lung cancer may indicate a genetic predisposition to the disease.

Types of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer :

  1. Adenocarcinoma: This type of NSCLC begins in the cells that line the alveoli (tiny air sacs) of the lungs. It is commonly found in non-smokers and is often associated with genetic mutations.
  2. Squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinoma starts in the squamous cells that line the airways of the lungs. It is often linked to smoking and can cause symptoms like coughing, chest pain, and pneumonia.
  3. Large cell carcinoma: Large cell carcinoma is a less common and more aggressive form of NSCLC. It can occur in any part of the lung and tends to grow rapidly, making it challenging to treat.

Diagnostic Tests and Treatments :

  • Chest X-ray: A chest X-ray is often the first imaging test used to detect abnormalities in the lungs. It can provide an initial indication of the presence of a tumor or other lung abnormalities.
  • Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: A CT scan provides detailed images of the lungs, allowing for a closer examination of any suspicious areas or abnormalities.
  • Biopsy: A biopsy involves removing a small sample of lung tissue for examination under a microscope. It helps confirm the presence of cancer, determine its type, and guide treatment decisions.
  • Molecular Testing: Molecular testing analyzes the tumor tissue for specific genetic mutations or alterations. This information is vital for targeted therapies, as certain mutations can be targeted with specific medications.
  • Surgery: Surgery involves removing the tumor and nearby lymph nodes. Depending on the stage and location of the cancer, different surgical procedures may be performed, such as lobectomy, pneumonectomy, or wedge resection.
  • Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to target and kill cancer cells. It may be used before surgery to shrink tumors, after surgery to destroy remaining cancer cells, or as a primary treatment for inoperable cases.
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses powerful drugs to kill cancer cells or slow their growth. It may be administered before or after surgery, or in advanced cases, to control the cancer’s spread and alleviate symptoms.

Complications of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer :

NSCLC can lead to various complications, including:

  • Metastasis: Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones, liver, brain, or adrenal glands, leading to more advanced disease.
  • Respiratory problems: As NSCLC progresses, it can cause significant breathing difficulties and respiratory complications.
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes: Some NSCLC tumors produce substances that can cause paraneoplastic syndromes, leading to additional symptoms like hormonal imbalances or neurological abnormalities. 

Prevention Techniques :

While complete prevention of NSCLC may not always be possible, certain measures can reduce the risk:

  • Avoid smoking: Quitting smoking and avoiding secondhand smoke is the most effective way to prevent NSCLC.
  • Occupational safety: Follow appropriate safety measures and regulations when working with hazardous substances to minimize exposure.
  • Radon testing and mitigation: Test homes and workplaces for radon levels and take necessary steps to reduce exposure if elevated.
  • Healthy lifestyle: Maintain a balanced diet, engage in regular physical activity, and take steps to manage stress, as these factors can contribute to overall well-being.
  • Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a type of lung cancer that affects many people across India.

It is crucial for patients to receive prompt and effective medical care. Marengo Asia Hospitals in India has established itself as a leading healthcare provider, specializing in the treatment of NSCLC. In this article, we will explain how Marengo Asia  Hospitals handles patients with NSCLC, using simple language that anyone can understand.

What is Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer? :

Non-small-cell lung cancer refers to a type of lung cancer that accounts for the majority of lung cancer cases. Unlike small-cell lung cancer, which spreads quickly, NSCLC usually grows and spreads more slowly. It can manifest as various subtypes, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or large cell carcinoma. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving patient outcomes.

Specialized Care at Marengo Asia  Hospitals :

Marengo Asia  Hospitals has a dedicated team of healthcare professionals, including oncologists, radiologists, surgeons, and support staff, who collaborate to provide comprehensive care for NSCLC patients. Their approach involves a combination of medical expertise, state-of-the-art technology, and compassionate support.


Accurate diagnosis is the first step in treating NSCLC. Marengo Asia  Hospitals utilizes advanced diagnostic techniques, such as imaging tests like X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Additionally, they may perform biopsies, which involve taking small tissue samples for examination in a laboratory.

Multidisciplinary Treatment Planning:

Once a diagnosis is confirmed, the healthcare team at Marengo Asia  Hospitals discusses the patient’s case in a multidisciplinary meeting. This meeting involves various specialists who collectively decide on the most suitable treatment plan for the patient. The treatment plan may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy, depending on the individual’s condition and needs.


In cases where the cancer is localized and has not spread extensively, surgery may be an option. Marengo Asia  Hospitals has experienced thoracic surgeons who specialize in lung cancer surgeries. They use minimally invasive techniques whenever possible, such as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), which reduces scarring and promotes faster recovery.

Radiation Therapy:

Radiation therapy involves the use of high-energy X-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells. Marengo Asia Hospitals radiation oncologists are skilled in delivering precise and effective radiation treatments, minimizing damage to healthy tissues surrounding the tumor.

Chemotherapy, Targeted Therapy, and Immunotherapy:

Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells or stop them from multiplying. Targeted therapy involves medications that specifically target cancer cells, minimizing harm to healthy cells. Immunotherapy stimulates the patient’s immune system to fight cancer cells. Marengo Asia  Hospitals ensures that patients receive the most appropriate systemic treatments based on their individual characteristics and needs.

Supportive Care:

Throughout the treatment process, Marengo Asia Hsopitals prioritizes the overall well-being of NSCLC patients. They offer supportive care services such as pain management, nutrition counseling, psychological support, and rehabilitation programs. These services aim to enhance the patient’s quality of life and provide support during the challenging journey of cancer treatment.

Marengo Asia Hospitals in India takes a comprehensive and personalized approach to treat patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. By combining advanced diagnostic techniques, multidisciplinary treatment planning, and a range of treatment options, they strive to provide the best possible care for NSCLC patients. Alongside medical treatments, they also prioritize supportive care services to improve the overall well-being of the patients. With their expertise and commitment, Marengo Asia  Hospitals aims to enhance patient outcomes and make a positive impact in the fight against NSCLC.


Contact Us

Marengo CIMS Hospital
Off Science City Road, Sola, Ahmedabad – 380060
Gujarat, INDIA

24×7 Helpline +91 70 69 00 00 00
Phone: 079 4805 1200 or 1008
+91 79 2771 2771 or 72
Fax: +91 79 2771 2770
Mobile: +91 98250 66664 or +91 98250 66668
Ambulance: +91 98244 50000