Introduction: Basic structural and functional unit of kidney. A Normal human kidney contains 800,000 to 1.5 million nephrons.

Types of Nephrons:
• Cortical Nephrons
• Juxtamedullary Nephrons
Amongst this two, majority of nephrons are cortical nephrons.
• To regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium salts
• Filtration of blood
• Reabsorbs the needed
• Excretes the rest as urine
• Regulation of blood pH
Its functions are vital to life and are regulated by the endocrine system by hormones such as antidiuretic hormone, aldosterone and parathyroid hormone.