Marengo CIMS Hospital is dedicated to providing comprehensive healthcare services and fostering patient well-being. As part of our commitment to patient education, we have developed the Marengo CIMS Hospital Medical Encyclopedia—an invaluable online resource designed to empower patients with knowledge about various medical conditions, treatments, and preventive measures. This encyclopedia serves as a trusted and accessible repository of medical information, allowing patients to make informed decisions regarding their health and collaborate more effectively with healthcare professionals.


Kidney stones are a prevalent condition in India, affecting individuals of all ages. With the country’s unique dietary patterns and high prevalence of risk factors, understanding the signs, causes, diagnostic tests, treatment options, complications, and prevention techniques for kidney stones is crucial. In this article, we will explore the intricacies of kidney stones while providing explanations in simple layman language, keeping the Indian context in mind.

Signs and Symptoms of Kidney Stones:

  • The signs and symptoms of kidney stones may vary, but commonly include:
  •  Severe Flank Pain: Intense pain in the side or back, often radiating to the lower abdomen and groin, is a hallmark symptom of kidney stones.
  •  Hematuria: Blood in the urine, which may be visible or detected only under a microscope, is another common indication of kidney stones.
  •  Frequent Urination: Individuals with kidney stones may experience a frequent urge to urinate or feel the need to urinate more often than usual.
  •  Painful Urination: Discomfort or pain during urination is a common symptom of kidney stones.
  • Cloudy or Foul-Smelling Urine: Kidney stones can cause changes in urine color and odor, with urine appearing cloudy or having an unpleasant smell.

What Is Kidney Stone? :

Kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, are hard deposits that form in the kidneys. They are composed of minerals and salts that accumulate and crystallize over time. These stones can vary in size, ranging from tiny specks to larger, more obstructive formations.

How Is Kidney Stone Classified? :

Kidney stones can be classified based on their composition, shape, and size. The most common classifications include:

  • Calcium Stones: These are the most prevalent type of kidney stones, comprising calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. They often form when calcium combines with oxalate or phosphate in the urine.
  • Uric Acid Stones: Uric acid stones develop when urine contains high levels of uric acid. They are commonly associated with conditions such as gout or high-purine diets.
  • Struvite Stones: Struvite stones, also known as infection stones, typically form in individuals with urinary tract infections. They can grow rapidly and may cause significant obstruction.
  • Cystine Stones: Cystine stones are rare and form due to a genetic disorder that affects the reabsorption of cystine in the kidneys. They tend to be recurrent and require specialized management.

 Causes and Triggers for Kidney Stone:

Several factors contribute to the formation of kidney stones:

  • Dehydration: Inadequate fluid intake can lead to concentrated urine, increasing the risk of stone formation.
  • Dietary Factors: Consuming a diet high in salt, oxalate-rich foods (such as spinach and chocolate), animal protein, and sugar-sweetened beverages can increase the likelihood of developing kidney stones.
  • Family History: A family history of kidney stones increases the risk of developing the condition.
  • Certain Medical Conditions: Conditions such as urinary tract infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and certain metabolic disorders can predispose individuals to kidney stones.

Risk Factors with Examples of Kidney Stone:

Several risk factors increase the likelihood of developing kidney stones, including:

  •  Age and Gender: Individuals between the ages of 30 and 60 are more prone to kidney stones. Men have a higher prevalence compared to women.
  •  Geographic Location: Hot and arid climates, prevalent in certain regions of India, can contribute to dehydration and increase the risk of stone formation.
  •  Occupation: Certain occupations, such as farming or construction work, may involve excessive sweating and inadequate hydration, increasing the risk of kidney stone formation.
  •  Obesity: Being overweight or obese can increase the risk of developing kidney stones.

Types of Kidney Stone with Detailing for Each Type:

  • Calcium Oxalate Stones: These are the most common type of kidney stones. They form when calcium combines with oxalate in the urine. Dietary factors, such as consuming oxalate-rich foods or low-calcium diets, can contribute to their formation.
  • Calcium Phosphate Stones: These stones occur when calcium combines with phosphate in the urine. They are commonly associated with metabolic disorders or certain medications.
  •  Uric Acid Stones: Uric acid stones form due to high levels of uric acid in the urine. They are often seen in individuals with gout or those who consume a diet high in purines.
  •  Struvite Stones: Struvite stones typically develop as a result of urinary tract infections. They can grow rapidly and may cause significant obstruction.
  •  Cystine Stones: Cystine stones are rare and result from a genetic disorder called cystinuria. They are recurrent and require specialized management.

Diagnostic Tests and Treatment Options:

To diagnose and treat kidney stones, healthcare professionals employ various methods:

  1. Imaging Tests: Imaging techniques, such as X-rays, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scans, help visualize and locate kidney stones. These tests provide information on the size, location, and number of stones present.
  2. Urine Analysis: A urine analysis is performed to detect the presence of substances that promote stone formation or indicate an underlying condition contributing to stone development.
  3. Blood Tests: Blood tests, such as a comprehensive metabolic panel, can evaluate kidney function, identify electrolyte imbalances, and assess overall health.
  4. Fluid Intake and Dietary Modifications: Adequate fluid intake is crucial for preventing and managing kidney stones. Healthcare professionals may recommend increasing water consumption and making dietary modifications, such as reducing salt, oxalate-rich foods, and animal protein.
  5. Medications: Depending on the type of kidney stone and underlying factors, medications may be prescribed to help prevent stone formation or dissolve existing stones. These may include thiazide diuretics, allopurinol, or potassium citrate.
  6. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL): ESWL is a non-invasive procedure that uses shock waves to break down larger kidney stones into smaller fragments, allowing them to pass more easily through the urinary tract.
  7. Ureteroscopy and Laser Lithotripsy: Ureteroscopy involves the insertion of a thin tube through the urethra and bladder to reach and remove or break down kidney stones using laser energy.

Complications and Prevention Techniques:

Kidney stones can lead to various complications, including:

  • Urinary Tract Obstruction: Large kidney stones may obstruct the urinary tract, causing severe pain, infection, or damage to the kidneys.
  •  Recurrence of Stones: Individuals who have had kidney stones are at a higher risk of experiencing recurrent stones. Preventive measures can help reduce the likelihood of stone recurrence.
  •  Preventing kidney stones involves:
  • Hydration: Maintaining adequate hydration by drinking plenty of fluids, especially water, helps dilute urine and prevent stone formation.
  •  Dietary Modifications: Following a balanced diet, low in salt, and avoiding excessive consumption of oxalate-rich foods and animal protein can help prevent stone formation.
  •  Regular Follow-up: Regular follow-up appointments with healthcare professionals are essential to monitor kidney health, assess risk factors, and make necessary adjustments to prevent stone recurrence.

Kidney stones are a common condition in India, affecting a significant number of individuals. To effectively manage this condition, Marengo Asia Hospitals across India has emerged as a leading healthcare provider. With their specialized renal units, skilled medical professionals, and state-of-the-art facilities, Marengo Asia Hospitals is dedicated to providing comprehensive care for patients with kidney stones. In this article, we will explore how Marengo Asia Hospitals expertly handles patients with kidney stones, offering effective diagnosis, personalized treatment plans, and ongoing support.

 Specialized Renal Units:

 Marengo Asia Hospitals features specialized renal units that are specifically designed to cater to the unique needs of patients with kidney stones. These units are equipped with advanced technologies, including imaging equipment and specialized surgical tools, allowing for accurate diagnosis and precise treatment interventions. The hospitals within the network understand the complexities of kidney stones and provide an environment focused on patient comfort and well-being.

Accurate Diagnosis:

Timely and accurate diagnosis is essential for effective management of kidney stones. The hospitals within Marengo Asia Hospitals employ skilled urologists and nephrologists who specialize in diagnosing and treating kidney stone cases. These medical professionals are well-versed in recognizing the signs and symptoms associated with kidney stones and utilize various diagnostic tools, including imaging tests such as X-rays, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scans, to visualize and locate kidney stones. Through meticulous evaluation, they ensure accurate diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment plan for each patient. 

Personalized Treatment Plans:

Each patient with kidney stones requires an individualized treatment plan tailored to their specific condition and needs. Marengo Asia Hospitals excels in developing personalized treatment strategies, taking into consideration factors such as the size, location, and composition of the stones, as well as the patient’s overall health and medical history. Treatment options may include:

Conservative Management: 

For small stones that are likely to pass spontaneously, the hospitals may recommend conservative management. This typically involves pain management, adequate hydration, and lifestyle modifications to facilitate the passage of the stones.

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL):

ESWL is a non-invasive procedure that uses shock waves to break down larger kidney stones into smaller fragments. The fragmented stones can then pass through the urinary tract more easily. The Marengo Network of Hospitals is equipped with state-of-the-art ESWL machines and skilled technicians to perform this procedure effectively.

Ureteroscopy and Laser Lithotripsy: 

In cases where stones are larger or cannot be effectively treated with ESWL, ureteroscopy may be recommended. This procedure involves the insertion of a thin tube into the urinary tract to visualize and remove or break down the stones using laser energy. The Marengo Network of Hospitals has skilled urologists who specialize in performing ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy procedures.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL): 

For larger or more complex kidney stones, the hospitals may employ PCNL, a minimally invasive surgical procedure. It involves making a small incision in the back and using specialized instruments to remove the stones. The Marengo Network of Hospitals has experienced urologists who are proficient in performing PCNL procedures, ensuring safe and effective stone removal.

Ongoing Support and Follow-up:

Marengo Asia Hospitals recognizes the importance of ongoing support and follow-up care for patients with kidney stones. After the initial treatment, the hospitals provide comprehensive guidance on post-treatment care, including dietary modifications, fluid intake recommendations, and lifestyle adjustments to prevent stone recurrence. Regular follow-up appointments are scheduled to monitor the patient’s kidney health, evaluate treatment outcomes, and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

Patient Education and Counseling:

Marengo Asia Hospitals places great emphasis on patient education and counseling throughout the treatment journey. They provide comprehensive information to patients and their families, explaining the nature of kidney stones, risk factors, preventive measures, and self-management techniques. The hospitals also offer counseling services, addressing any concerns or questions that patients may have and providing guidance on maintaining kidney health.

Promoting Awareness and Preventive Measures:

Marengo Asia Hospitals actively engages in community outreach initiatives to raise awareness about kidney stones and promote preventive measures. They organize health camps, educational seminars, and awareness programs to educate the public about the importance of hydration, dietary modifications, and early detection of kidney stones. By disseminating knowledge and promoting preventive measures, the network aims to reduce the incidence of kidney stones in India.

Marengo Asia Hospitals across India is at the forefront of managing kidney stones with their specialized renal units, skilled medical professionals, and patient-centered approach. With accurate diagnosis, personalized treatment plans, ongoing support, and community outreach efforts, they are making a significant impact in the effective management and prevention of kidney stones.


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Marengo CIMS Hospital
Off Science City Road, Sola, Ahmedabad – 380060
Gujarat, INDIA

24×7 Helpline +91 70 69 00 00 00
Phone: 079 4805 1200 or 1008
+91 79 2771 2771 or 72
Fax: +91 79 2771 2770
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