Marengo CIMS Hospital is dedicated to providing comprehensive healthcare services and fostering patient well-being. As part of our commitment to patient education, we have developed the Marengo CIMS Hospital Medical Encyclopedia—an invaluable online resource designed to empower patients with knowledge about various medical conditions, treatments, and preventive measures. This encyclopedia serves as a trusted and accessible repository of medical information, allowing patients to make informed decisions regarding their health and collaborate more effectively with healthcare professionals.


Keratoconus is a progressive eye condition that affects the cornea, leading to visual impairment and distortion. In the context of India, where eye health is of utmost importance, understanding the signs, symptoms, causes, diagnostic tests, treatment options, and prevention techniques for keratoconus is crucial. In this article, we will explore the intricacies of keratoconus while aiming to explain complex medical terminologies in simple layman language.

What is Keratoconus? :

Keratoconus is an eye disorder characterized by thinning and bulging of the cornea, which is the clear front surface of the eye. This results in an abnormal cone-like shape, causing visual distortions and reduced visual acuity. Keratoconus typically begins during adolescence or early adulthood and can progress over time, potentially leading to significant visual impairment if left untreated.

Signs and Symptoms of Keratoconus:

The signs and symptoms of keratoconus can vary, but commonly include:

  • Blurred or distorted vision

  • Increased sensitivity to light (photophobia)

  • Frequent changes in eyeglass prescriptions

  • Ghosting or multiple images

  • Eye strain or discomfort

  • Poor night vision

  • Eye rubbing due to itching or irritation 

What Is Keratoconus Classified? :

Keratoconus is typically classified based on the severity and shape of the corneal protrusion:

  •  Mild Keratoconus: In the early stages, the cornea undergoes mild thinning and distortion, with minimal impact on vision.
  •  Moderate Keratoconus: As the condition progresses, the cornea becomes more irregular, leading to significant visual impairment and changes in the shape of the cornea.
  •  Severe Keratoconus: In advanced stages, the cornea significantly thins and bulges, causing severe visual distortion and potentially necessitating more invasive treatment options.

 Causes and Triggers for Keratoconus:

The exact cause of keratoconus is still unknown. However, several factors may contribute to its development:

  • Genetic Predisposition: There is evidence to suggest that keratoconus can run in families, indicating a genetic component.
  • Structural Weakness of the Cornea: Individuals with inherently weaker corneal tissue may be more prone to developing keratoconus.
  • Chronic Eye Rubbing: Frequent and vigorous eye rubbing can potentially aggravate the condition, although it is not a direct cause.

Risk Factors with Examples of Keratoconus:

Certain risk factors increase the likelihood of developing keratoconus, including:

  • Family History: Individuals with a family history of keratoconus are at a higher risk of developing the condition.
  • Allergies: Conditions such as allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis, which cause chronic eye rubbing and irritation, can contribute to the progression of keratoconus.
  • Ethnicity: Certain ethnic groups, such as people of Indian, Pakistani, and Middle Eastern descent, have a higher prevalence of keratoconus.

Types of Keratoconus:

Keratoconus can manifest in different forms, each with specific characteristics:

  • Typical Keratoconus: This is the most common form, characterized by progressive thinning and bulging of the cornea, resulting in irregular astigmatism.
  • Pellucid Marginal Degeneration (PMD): PMD is a variant of keratoconus where the thinning and bulging occur primarily at the inferior and peripheral areas of the cornea.

 Diagnostic Tests and Treatment Options:

To diagnose and treat keratoconus, healthcare professionals employ various methods:

  • Corneal Topography: This non-invasive test maps the shape and curvature of the cornea, allowing for early detection and accurate diagnosis of keratoconus. It provides detailed information about corneal irregularities and guides treatment decisions.
  • Slit-Lamp Examination: A slit-lamp examination involves using a microscope with a specialized light source to examine the cornea, enabling the healthcare professional to assess the extent of corneal thinning and any associated structural changes.
  • Contact Lens Fitting: Contact lenses, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, are commonly used to improve visual acuity and correct corneal irregularities caused by keratoconus. The healthcare professional carefully selects and fits the appropriate contact lenses to optimize vision.
  •  Corneal Cross-Linking: Corneal cross-linking is a minimally invasive procedure that involves applying riboflavin eye drops to the cornea and then exposing it to ultraviolet light. This treatment helps strengthen the corneal tissue and halt the progression of keratoconus.
  • Intraocular Lenses: In severe cases of keratoconus, where contact lenses or corneal cross-linking may not provide adequate vision improvement, intraocular lenses (IOLs) may be considered. These lenses are surgically implanted inside the eye to correct the refractive errors caused by keratoconus.

Complications and Prevention Techniques:

Keratoconus can lead to various complications, including:

  • Visual Impairment: If left untreated, keratoconus can result in significant visual impairment, impacting daily activities and quality of life.
  • Scarring and Hydrops: In rare cases, the cornea may develop scars or experience sudden swelling (hydrops), leading to sudden vision loss and further complications.
  • Preventing keratoconus involves:
  • Regular Eye Exams: Routine eye examinations, especially for individuals with a family history of keratoconus or other risk factors, can aid in early detection and intervention.
  • Avoiding Eye Rubbing: Minimizing eye rubbing and practicing good eye hygiene can help prevent exacerbation of keratoconus symptoms.
  • Protective Eyewear: Individuals engaged in activities that may put the eyes at risk, such as sports or construction work, should wear appropriate protective eyewear to prevent trauma to the cornea.

Keratoconus, a progressive eye condition that affects the cornea, requires specialized care and treatment. In the context of India, where eye health is a priority, Marengo Asia Hospitals stands out as a leading healthcare provider dedicated to handling patients with keratoconus. In this article, we will explore how Marengo Asia Hospitals across India effectively manages patients with keratoconus, providing comprehensive care and support.

Specialized Ophthalmology Units:

Marengo Asia Hospitals features specialized ophthalmology units equipped with cutting-edge technology and staffed by experienced ophthalmologists and eye care professionals. These units are specifically designed to provide comprehensive care for patients with keratoconus, offering advanced diagnostic tools and treatment options.

 Early Detection and Diagnosis:

Timely detection and accurate diagnosis are crucial for effectively managing keratoconus. The hospitals within Marengo Asia Hospitals employ skilled ophthalmologists who are well-versed in recognizing the signs and symptoms associated with keratoconus. Through thorough eye examinations and the use of advanced diagnostic techniques, such as corneal topography and slit-lamp examinations, they ensure early detection and precise diagnosis of the condition.

Customized Treatment Plans:

Each patient with keratoconus requires an individualized treatment plan tailored to their specific needs. Marengo Asia Hospitals excels in developing personalized treatment strategies for patients with keratoconus. These plans may include a combination of approaches, such as contact lens fitting, corneal cross-linking, or surgical intervention, depending on the severity and progression of the condition. The hospitals prioritize providing treatment options that optimize visual acuity and improve the quality of life for patients.

Contact Lens Fitting:

Contact lenses, particularly rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, are commonly used to correct vision and improve visual acuity for patients with keratoconus. The Marengo Asia Hospitals offers specialized contact lens fitting services, ensuring the selection of the most appropriate lenses for individual patients. With expertise in fitting irregular corneas, the hospitals strive to optimize vision and provide comfortable contact lens options.

Corneal Cross-Linking:

Corneal cross-linking is a minimally invasive procedure used to slow down the progression of keratoconus. Marengo Asia Hospitals offers this innovative treatment option, which involves applying riboflavin eye drops to the cornea and exposing it to ultraviolet light. This procedure strengthens the corneal tissue, preventing further thinning and bulging, and preserving visual function.

Surgical Intervention:

In cases where contact lenses or corneal cross-linking may not provide adequate visual improvement, surgical intervention may be considered. The Marengo Asia Hospitals collaborates with skilled ophthalmic surgeons who specialize in various surgical techniques, such as implanting intraocular lenses (IOLs) or performing corneal transplantation. These surgical procedures are tailored to the individual patient’s needs, aiming to correct visual abnormalities and enhance visual acuity.

Patient Education and Support:

The Marengo Asia Hospitals recognizes the importance of patient education and support throughout the treatment journey. They provide comprehensive information to patients and their families, helping them understand the condition, treatment options, and potential outcomes. The hospitals also offer ongoing support, addressing any concerns or questions that may arise, and guiding patients in managing their condition effectively.

Community Outreach and Awareness:

The Marengo Asia Hospitals actively engages in community outreach initiatives to raise awareness about keratoconus. They conduct awareness campaigns, seminars, and workshops to educate the public, optometrists, and other healthcare professionals about the signs, symptoms, and importance of early detection of keratoconus. By promoting awareness and knowledge, the network aims to facilitate early diagnosis, intervention, and improved outcomes for patients across India.

The Marengo Asia Hospitals across India plays a pivotal role in providing specialized care for patients with keratoconus. With their dedicated ophthalmology units, experienced professionals, advanced diagnostic tools, and a wide range of treatment options, they ensure that individuals with keratoconus receive comprehensive care.


Contact Us

Marengo CIMS Hospital
Off Science City Road, Sola, Ahmedabad – 380060
Gujarat, INDIA

24×7 Helpline +91 70 69 00 00 00
Phone: 079 4805 1200 or 1008
+91 79 2771 2771 or 72
Fax: +91 79 2771 2770
Mobile: +91 98250 66664 or +91 98250 66668
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