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Diabetic retinopathy is a serious eye condition that affects individuals with diabetes. In India, where diabetes is a significant health concern, diabetic retinopathy poses a major threat to vision. In this article, we will delve into the sign and symptoms, classification, causes, risk factors, types, diagnostic tests, treatment options, complications, prevention techniques, and discuss notable public figures in India who have been diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy.

Signs and Symptoms:

The early stages of diabetic retinopathy may not present any noticeable symptoms. However, as the condition progresses, the following signs and symptoms may appear:

  1. Blurred vision

  1. Floaters (dark spots or strings floating in the vision)

  1. Impaired color vision

  1. Dark or empty areas in the field of vision

  1. Difficulty seeing at night

  1. Sudden vision loss

What is Diabetic Retinopathy?

Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that occurs when high blood sugar levels damage the blood vessels in the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. The two main types of diabetic retinopathy are non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

How is Diabetic Retinopathy Classified?

  1. Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR): In NPDR, the early stage, the blood vessels in the retina weaken and leak fluid or blood. This stage is further categorized into mild, moderate, and severe NPDR, depending on the number and severity of abnormalities.

  1. Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR): PDR is the advanced stage where new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. These fragile vessels are prone to bleeding and may cause scar tissue formation, leading to retinal detachment.

Causes and Triggers:

Diabetic retinopathy is primarily caused by the long-term effects of diabetes on blood vessels. High blood sugar levels can damage the small blood vessels in the retina, leading to leaks and abnormal vessel growth. Other contributing factors include:

  1. Poorly controlled diabetes

  1. High blood pressure

  1. High cholesterol levels

  1. Prolonged duration of diabetes

  1. Pregnancy

Risk Factors:

Several factors can increase the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy, such as:

  1. Poor blood sugar control: Individuals with uncontrolled diabetes are at a higher risk.

  1. Duration of diabetes: The longer an individual has diabetes, the higher the risk.

  1. High blood pressure: Hypertension can exacerbate retinal damage.

  1. High cholesterol levels: Elevated cholesterol can contribute to the development of diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Pregnancy: Diabetic women during pregnancy are at an increased risk.

Types of Diabetic Retinopathy:

  1. Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR):

    • Mild NPDR: Microaneurysms and small retinal hemorrhages occur.

    • Moderate NPDR: More severe vessel abnormalities, including venous beading and cotton wool spots.

    • Severe NPDR: Widespread retinal hemorrhages, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMAs), and venous beading are observed.

  1. Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR):

    • Neovascularization: New, fragile blood vessels grow on the retina’s surface.

    • Vitreous hemorrhage: Bleeding occurs into the vitreous, causing sudden vision loss.

    • Tractional retinal detachment: Scar tissue formation leads to the detachment of the retina.

Diagnostic Tests and Treatment Options:

To diagnose diabetic retinopathy and determine its severity, ophthalmologists may perform the following tests:

  1. Dilated Eye Examination: The ophthalmologist examines the retina using special instruments after dilating the pupil. This helps identify any abnormalities or signs of retinopathy.

  1. Fluorescein Angiography: A dye is injected into the arm, which highlights the blood vessels in the retina. Photographs are taken to identify any leakage or blockages.

  1. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): This test provides detailed cross-sectional images of the retina, helping to assess the thickness and integrity of the layers.


Treatment options for diabetic retinopathy include:

  1. Laser Treatment (Photocoagulation): High-energy laser beams are used to seal leaking blood vessels or destroy abnormal ones. It helps prevent further vision loss and is effective in managing proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Anti-VEGF Injections: Medications such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents can be injected into the eye to reduce the growth of abnormal blood vessels and prevent further vision loss.

Complications and Prevention Techniques:

Complications of diabetic retinopathy may include retinal detachment, glaucoma, and blindness. To prevent or manage diabetic retinopathy effectively, individuals with diabetes should consider the following:

  1. Regular Eye Examinations: Diabetic individuals should undergo comprehensive eye exams annually or as recommended by their healthcare provider.

  1. Glycemic Control: Maintaining stable blood sugar levels helps minimize the risk and progression of diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Management: Keeping blood pressure and cholesterol levels under control is crucial in preventing complications.

Diabetic retinopathy is a significant concern in India, where the prevalence of diabetes is high. To address this condition effectively, specialized healthcare networks play a vital role. Marengo Asia Hospitals in India is renowned for its comprehensive approach to healthcare and has the capacity to handle patients with diabetic retinopathy. In this article, we will explore how Marengo Asia Hospitals can provide exceptional care for patients with diabetic retinopathy, covering various aspects from diagnosis to treatment.

State-of-the-Art Diagnostic Facilities:

Marengo Asia Hospitals understands the importance of accurate diagnosis in managing diabetic retinopathy. They are equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostic facilities, including advanced imaging technologies and specialized tools. These facilities enable precise evaluation of the retina and aid in identifying the type and severity of the condition. From dilated eye examinations to optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography, the network ensures that patients receive thorough and reliable diagnostic assessments.

Specialized Ophthalmologists and Retinal Specialists:

Marengo Asia Hospitals boasts a team of highly skilled ophthalmologists and retinal specialists who have extensive experience in managing diabetic retinopathy. These professionals are well-versed in the latest advancements in retinal care and possess the expertise to provide personalized treatment plans based on each patient’s specific needs. Their comprehensive knowledge, combined with their commitment to patient care, ensures that individuals with diabetic retinopathy receive the highest standard of treatment.

Individualized Treatment Plans:

Every patient’s diabetic retinopathy journey is unique, and Marengo Asia Hospitals recognizes the importance of individualized treatment plans. Following a thorough diagnosis, the healthcare professionals at the network design personalized treatment strategies tailored to the specific needs of each patient. Treatment options may include laser treatment (photocoagulation), anti-VEGF injections, or a combination of therapies. The network’s approach emphasizes preserving vision, managing complications, and promoting the overall well-being of patients with diabetic retinopathy.


Collaborative Care Model:

Marengo Asia Hospitals follows a collaborative care model, ensuring seamless coordination among various healthcare providers involved in a patient’s treatment journey. This model allows for effective communication and information sharing between ophthalmologists, diabetologists, endocrinologists, and other specialists. By fostering interdisciplinary collaboration, the network ensures that patients receive comprehensive care that addresses not only their retinal health but also the underlying factors contributing to diabetic retinopathy.

Patient Education and Support:

Empowering patients with knowledge and support is a cornerstone of Marengo Asia Hospitals approach to diabetic retinopathy care. They provide extensive patient education programs, enabling individuals to understand the condition, its progression, and the importance of regular follow-ups. The network also offers guidance on diabetes management, including lifestyle modifications, glycemic control, and blood pressure and cholesterol management. By educating and supporting patients, the network strives to enhance treatment outcomes and improve overall quality of life.

Continuous Monitoring and Follow-up Care:

Diabetic retinopathy requires long-term management, and Marengo Asia Hospitals recognizes the significance of continuous monitoring and follow-up care. The network emphasizes regular check-ups to assess the progression of the condition and adjust treatment plans accordingly. Through diligent monitoring, potential complications can be identified early, enabling prompt intervention and preventing vision loss. The network’s commitment to ongoing care ensures that patients receive sustained support throughout their diabetic retinopathy journey.


Marengo Asia Hospitals across India has positioned itself as a trusted provider of comprehensive diabetic retinopathy care. With a focus on early detection, advanced treatment modalities, collaborative care, and patient education, the network strives to prevent vision loss and improve the quality of life for individuals with diabetic retinopathy. By combining the expertise of specialized ophthalmologists, cutting-edge technology, and a patient-centric approach, Marengo Asia Hospitals of Hospitals is paving the way for enhanced ocular health outcomes in the realm of diabetic retinopathy.





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Marengo CIMS Hospital
Off Science City Road, Sola, Ahmedabad – 380060
Gujarat, INDIA

24×7 Helpline +91 70 69 00 00 00
Phone: 079 4805 1200 or 1008
+91 79 2771 2771 or 72
Fax: +91 79 2771 2770
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Email: info@cims.org