Marengo CIMS Hospital is dedicated to providing comprehensive healthcare services and fostering patient well-being. As part of our commitment to patient education, we have developed the Marengo CIMS Hospital Medical Encyclopedia—an invaluable online resource designed to empower patients with knowledge about various medical conditions, treatments, and preventive measures. This encyclopedia serves as a trusted and accessible repository of medical information, allowing patients to make informed decisions regarding their health and collaborate more effectively with healthcare professionals.

Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent health issue in India, with a significant impact on the population’s overall well-being. This article provides a comprehensive understanding of diabetes mellitus in the Indian context, including its signs and symptoms, classification, causes and triggers, risk factors, types, diagnostic tests, treatments, complications, prevention techniques, and examples of public figures in India who have been diagnosed with the condition.

Signs and Symptoms:
Recognizing the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus is crucial for early detection and management. Common symptoms include:

  1. Frequent urination

  1. Excessive thirst and hunger

  1. Unexplained weight loss

  1. Fatigue and weakness

  1. Blurred vision

  1. Slow-healing wounds

  1. Numbness or tingling in hands and feet

What Is Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels. It occurs when the body either does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that regulates blood sugar) or does not effectively use the insulin it produces.

How Is Diabetes Mellitus Classified?
Diabetes mellitus is classified into different types based on the underlying causes and mechanisms:

  1. Type 1 Diabetes: In this autoimmune condition, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes typically develops in childhood or early adulthood and requires lifelong insulin therapy.

  1. Type 2 Diabetes: This is the most common form of diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance and inadequate insulin production. It is often associated with lifestyle factors such as obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and poor dietary choices. Type 2 diabetes can usually be managed through lifestyle modifications, oral medications, and, in some cases, insulin therapy.

  1. Gestational Diabetes: This type of diabetes occurs during pregnancy when hormonal changes lead to insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after childbirth, but it increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

Causes and Triggers:
The causes of diabetes mellitus are multifactorial, influenced by a combination of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some common causes and triggers include:

  1. Genetic Predisposition: Individuals with a family history of diabetes are at a higher risk of developing the condition.

  1. Unhealthy Lifestyle: Sedentary habits, poor dietary choices (excessive consumption of sugary and processed foods), and obesity increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Insulin Resistance: Insulin resistance occurs when the body’s cells become less responsive to insulin, resulting in elevated blood sugar levels. It is often associated with excess body weight, physical inactivity, and poor diet.

Risk Factors with Examples:
Several risk factors can contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus. Examples of risk factors in the Indian context include:

  1. Obesity: Excess body weight, particularly abdominal obesity, significantly increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  1. Sedentary Lifestyle: Lack of physical activity and a sedentary lifestyle contribute to insulin resistance and the onset of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Unhealthy Dietary Patterns: A diet high in refined carbohydrates, sugary beverages, and saturated fats increases the risk of developing diabetes.

  1. Family History: Having a close family member, such as a parent or sibling, with diabetes increases the risk of developing the condition.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus:

  1. Type 1 Diabetes: This type is characterized by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. It requires lifelong insulin therapy for blood sugar regulation.

  1. Type 2 Diabetes: Type 2 diabetes is primarily caused by insulin resistance and inadequate insulin production. It can often be managed through lifestyle modifications, oral medications, and, in some cases, insulin therapy.

  1. Gestational Diabetes: This type occurs during pregnancy and usually resolves after childbirth. However, women who develop gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

Diagnostic Tests and Treatments:
Diagnosing and managing diabetes mellitus involve various diagnostic tests and treatment options. These include:

  1. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test: This blood test measures blood sugar levels after an overnight fast. It helps diagnose diabetes and prediabetes.

  1. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT): This test involves measuring blood sugar levels before and two hours after consuming a glucose-rich beverage. It helps diagnose gestational diabetes and evaluate insulin resistance.

  1. HbA1c Test: This blood test provides an average blood sugar level over the past two to three months. It is useful for diagnosing and monitoring long-term blood sugar control.

Treatment options for diabetes mellitus may include:

  1. Lifestyle Modifications: Healthy eating habits, regular physical activity, weight management, and smoking cessation are key components of diabetes management.

  1. Medications: Oral medications or injectable insulin may be prescribed to manage blood sugar levels effectively.

  1. Insulin Therapy: People with type 1 diabetes or advanced type 2 diabetes may require insulin therapy to regulate blood sugar levels.

Complications of Diabetes Mellitus and Prevention Techniques:
Untreated or poorly managed diabetes can lead to various complications, including heart disease, kidney disease, nerve damage, and vision problems. Prevention techniques for diabetes mellitus include:

  1. Healthy Lifestyle: Adopting a balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, maintaining a healthy weight, and avoiding tobacco use can help prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Regular Check-ups: Regular medical check-ups, including blood sugar screenings, help identify early signs of diabetes and allow for timely intervention.

Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent chronic condition in India, affecting millions of people. Marengo Asia Hospitals, spread across the country, is committed to providing comprehensive care for patients with diabetes mellitus. With their specialized expertise, advanced facilities, and patient-centered approach, Marengo Asia Hospitals ensures early detection, accurate diagnosis, personalized treatment plans, and ongoing support for individuals with diabetes, empowering them to lead healthy and fulfilling lives.


Specialized Expertise:
Marengo Asia Hospitals houses a team of experienced endocrinologists, diabetologists, diabetes educators, nutritionists, and other healthcare professionals specializing in the management of diabetes mellitus. These experts possess in-depth knowledge and expertise in diabetes care, enabling them to deliver high-quality, evidence-based treatment to patients.

Advanced Diagnostic Capabilities:
The hospitals within Marengo Asia Hospitals are equipped with advanced diagnostic technologies and tools that aid in the accurate assessment and monitoring of diabetes mellitus. These diagnostic capabilities include:

  1. Blood Glucose Monitoring: Regular blood glucose testing is essential for managing diabetes. The hospitals provide access to state-of-the-art glucose monitoring devices, including continuous glucose monitoring systems, to help patients monitor their blood sugar levels effectively.

  1. Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Testing: This blood test measures the average blood sugar levels over the past two to three months. HbA1c testing is crucial in assessing long-term blood glucose control and guiding treatment adjustments.

  1. Lipid Profile Testing: Diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. Lipid profile testing helps evaluate cholesterol levels and guides interventions to manage cardiovascular health.

Comprehensive Treatment Options:
Marengo Asia Hospitals offers a range of treatment options to effectively manage diabetes mellitus and its complications. These treatment modalities include:

  1. Medications: The hospitals provide access to a wide range of oral antidiabetic medications and injectable insulin therapies. Medications are prescribed based on individual patient needs, including blood glucose levels, comorbidities, and lifestyle factors.

  1. Lifestyle Modifications: The healthcare professionals at Marengo Asia Hospitals emphasize the importance of lifestyle modifications in diabetes management. They provide guidance on healthy eating, regular physical activity, weight management, stress reduction, and smoking cessation.

  1. Diabetes Education and Self-Management: The hospitals offer comprehensive diabetes education programs, empowering patients with knowledge and skills to self-manage their condition effectively. These programs cover topics such as blood glucose monitoring, medication management, healthy eating, and coping strategies.

  1. Continuous Care and Monitoring: Marengo Asia Hospitals ensures ongoing care and monitoring for patients with diabetes. Regular follow-up appointments, periodic assessments, and adjustments to treatment plans are carried out to optimize blood glucose control and prevent complications.

Complications Management and Prevention:
Diabetes mellitus can lead to various complications, including heart disease, kidney disease, nerve damage, and eye problems. Marengo Asia Hospitals takes a proactive approach to manage and prevent diabetes-related complications through:

  1. Specialized Clinics: The hospitals have specialized clinics dedicated to managing diabetes-related complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic foot care. These clinics provide comprehensive evaluations, early detection, and tailored treatment plans.

  1. Multidisciplinary Care: Marengo Asia Hospitals promotes collaboration among healthcare professionals from various disciplines, including endocrinologists, cardiologists, ophthalmologists, nephrologists, and podiatrists, to provide comprehensive care for patients with diabetes-related complications.

  1. Patient Education: The hospitals place great emphasis on educating patients about the importance of managing diabetes and preventing complications. They provide guidance on regular check-ups, foot care, eye screenings, and strategies for maintaining optimal health.

  1. Diabetes Prevention Programs: Marengo Asia Hospitals is actively involved in diabetes prevention initiatives. They conduct awareness campaigns, community outreach programs, and screenings to identify individuals at risk of developing diabetes and provide interventions to prevent or delay its onset.


For individuals living with diabetes mellitus, Marengo Asia Hospitals in India offer a comprehensive and patient-centric approach to care. With specialized diabetes clinics, advanced technology, collaborative care, and a focus on patient education, the network ensures that individuals receive personalized attention and support throughout their diabetes management journey.


Contact Us

Marengo CIMS Hospital
Off Science City Road, Sola, Ahmedabad – 380060
Gujarat, INDIA

24×7 Helpline +91 70 69 00 00 00
Phone: 079 4805 1200 or 1008
+91 79 2771 2771 or 72
Fax: +91 79 2771 2770
Mobile: +91 98250 66664 or +91 98250 66668
Ambulance: +91 98244 50000
Email: info@cims.org