Marengo CIMS Hospital is dedicated to providing comprehensive healthcare services and fostering patient well-being. As part of our commitment to patient education, we have developed the Marengo CIMS Hospital Medical Encyclopedia—an invaluable online resource designed to empower patients with knowledge about various medical conditions, treatments, and preventive measures. This encyclopedia serves as a trusted and accessible repository of medical information, allowing patients to make informed decisions regarding their health and collaborate more effectively with healthcare professionals.


The Abnormal Pap Test, also known as a Pap smear or Pap test, is a screening test used to detect abnormal cells in the cervix. It is an essential tool in women’s healthcare, especially in the early detection of cervical cancer. In India, where cervical cancer is a significant health concern, understanding the Abnormal Pap Test becomes crucial for women’s well-being.

 What is Abnormal Pap Test? :

An Abnormal Pap Test refers to the presence of abnormal cells in the cervical tissue. It is not a diagnosis of cervical cancer but an indication of potential cellular changes that require further evaluation. The test involves collecting cells from the cervix during a pelvic exam and examining them under a microscope for any abnormalities.

 Signs and Symptoms of Abnormal Pap Test:

 Most women with abnormal Pap results do not experience any symptoms.

Some may have minor symptoms like vaginal bleeding between periods, after sexual intercourse, or post-menopausal bleeding.

Unusual vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, or pain during intercourse may occasionally occur.

 How is Abnormal Pap Test Classified? :

Abnormal Pap Test results are classified using the Bethesda System, which categorizes findings into different types:

  •  Atypical Squamous Cells (ASC): These are further divided into ASC of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and ASC cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H).
  • Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL): Indicates mild cellular abnormalities.
  • High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL): Indicates more severe cellular abnormalities.
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Indicates the presence of cervical cancer cells.
  • Atypical Glandular Cells (AGC): Suggests abnormalities in the glandular cells of the cervix, which require close monitoring.

 Causes and Triggers of Abnormal Pap Test:

Several factors can contribute to abnormal Pap Test results in Indian women, including:

  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection: The most common cause of abnormal Pap Test results, especially the high-risk strains of HPV.
  • Inflammation or Infection: Infections like bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, or sexually transmitted infections can lead to abnormal results.
  • Cervical Dysplasia: Precancerous changes in the cervical cells.
  • Hormonal Changes: Certain hormonal conditions or medications may affect cell growth in the cervix.
  • Smoking: Smoking tobacco increases the risk of abnormal Pap Test results.

 Risk Factors for Abnormal Pap Test:

Various risk factors contribute to the likelihood of abnormal Pap Test results, including:

  • HPV Infection: Women with HPV infections, particularly high-risk strains, have an increased risk of abnormal results.
  • Age: Women between the ages of 30 and 50 are at higher risk.
  • Multiple Sexual Partners: Engaging in sexual activity with multiple partners increases the risk of HPV infection.
  • Weakened Immune System: Conditions like HIV/AIDS or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy can increase the risk.
  • Smoking: Active smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke raises the risk.

Types of Abnormal Pap Test:

  1.  ASC-US: Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. These results indicate slight abnormalities that require further evaluation.
  2. ASC-H: Atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. These results suggest a higher possibility of precancerous or cancerous cells.
  3. LSIL: Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. This classification refers to mild cellular changes that often resolve without treatment.
  4. HSIL: High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. These results indicate moderate to severe cellular abnormalities that require further investigation and treatment.
  5. Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The presence of cancerous cells in the cervix.

Diagnostic Tests and Treatments:

  • Colposcopy: A procedure that involves examining the cervix with a colposcope to identify abnormal areas for further evaluation and possible biopsy.
  • Biopsy: A small tissue sample is taken from the cervix for laboratory analysis to determine the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells.
  • Endocervical Curettage (ECC): A small spoon-shaped instrument (curette) is used to collect cells from the cervical canal for analysis.
  • Cone Biopsy (Conization): A cone-shaped section of abnormal tissue is surgically removed from the cervix for pathological examination.
  • Cryotherapy, LEEP, or Laser Ablation: These procedures aim to remove abnormal cervical tissue using extreme cold (cryotherapy), electrical current (LEEP), or laser energy (laser ablation).
  • Hysterectomy: In cases of severe cervical dysplasia or cancer, the removal of the uterus may be necessary.

 Complications, Prevention Techniques:

 Complications arising from diagnostic tests and treatments for Abnormal Pap Test are rare but can include bleeding, infection, or cervical stenosis. To prevent Abnormal Pap Test, individuals can:

 Undergo regular screening tests as recommended by healthcare professionals.

Receive the HPV vaccine, which provides protection against high-risk strains of the virus.

Practice safe sex and use condoms.

Avoid smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke.

 Marengo Asia Hospitals, spread across India, is renowned for its exceptional healthcare services and expertise in various medical fields. One area where they excel is in assisting patients who receive abnormal Pap test results. While an abnormal Pap test can be a cause for concern, it is important to remember that it does not necessarily indicate a serious health issue. In this article, we will explore how Marengo Asia Hospitals can help patients navigate through the process and provide the necessary support and treatment.

 What is an abnormal Pap test? :

 Before delving into how Marengo Asia Hospitals handles abnormal Pap test results, let’s briefly understand what an abnormal Pap test entails. A Pap test, also known as a Pap smear, is a screening procedure used to detect abnormalities in the cervix, which may indicate early signs of cervical cancer or other conditions.

 An abnormal Pap test result means that some cell changes or irregularities have been observed in the cervical cells. These changes can range from minor cell abnormalities to more concerning signs that may require further investigation or treatment.

 Expert Consultation:

 Upon receiving an abnormal Pap test result, the first step at any Marengo Asia Hospitals facility is to consult with a qualified healthcare professional. The doctor or gynecologist will review the test results, explain the findings, and provide guidance on the necessary next steps.

 Understanding the Severity:

 It is crucial to remember that not all abnormal Pap test results indicate the presence of cancer. Many times, the changes observed are harmless or may resolve on their own. Marengo Asia Hospitals takes a comprehensive approach to assess the severity of the abnormality. Additional tests, such as a colposcopy or HPV testing, may be recommended to gather more information about the condition.

 Colposcopy and Biopsy:

 If deemed necessary, the doctor may recommend a colposcopy, which is a procedure that allows for a closer examination of the cervix using a specialized magnifying instrument. This procedure helps the doctor identify any abnormal areas more accurately.

 During a colposcopy, the doctor may take a biopsy, which involves removing a small tissue sample from the cervix for further analysis. The biopsy results provide crucial information about the nature of the cell changes and aid in determining the appropriate course of action.

 Personalized Treatment Plan:

 Once all the necessary tests and assessments have been completed, Marengo Asia Hospitals will develop a personalized treatment plan for each patient. The recommended treatment depends on factors such as the severity of the abnormality, the patient’s age, medical history, and desires for future fertility.

 In many cases, mild abnormalities may not require immediate treatment. Instead, the healthcare professional will recommend close monitoring through regular Pap tests to ensure the condition does not progress or resolve spontaneously.

 If more serious abnormalities are detected, treatment options may include procedures to remove or destroy the abnormal cells, such as a LEEP (Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure) or cryotherapy. These procedures aim to eliminate the abnormal cells while preserving the health of the cervix.

 Emotional Support:

 Dealing with an abnormal Pap test result can be emotionally challenging. Marengo Asia Hospitals understands the importance of emotional support throughout the process. They provide counseling services to help patients cope with anxiety, fears, and concerns. It is vital to discuss any worries or questions with the healthcare professionals who are there to guide and support patients.

 Marengo Asia Hospitals stands at the forefront of providing exceptional healthcare services, including handling patients with abnormal Pap test results. Through expert consultations, comprehensive assessments, personalized treatment plans, and emotional support, they ensure that patients receive the care they need to navigate through this experience.