What is Nephrology?
Human body has two kidneys located in the back side. Kidneys’ function is to purify the blood and to remove toxins from blood. Nephron is basic structural and functional unit of kidney. Nephrology is a science that deals with disorders of kidney.
Please refer Urology webpage
When kidney function drops below minimum requirement to sustain body and maintain normal parameters, the solution is to replace the kidney function with either another artificial technology or transplant of healthy kidney.
Purification of blood via artificial means is called “Dialysis”.
Type of Dialysis: 1. Hemodialysis 2. Peritoneal Dialysis
- In this method, blood is purified through a machine known as “hemodialyser”. Blood flows through a dialyser and is returned to the body after purification.
- Hemodialysis requires AV-Fistula or dialysis catheter. Dialysis catheter could be of short term or long term duration.
- Hemodialysis should be performed twice or thrice a week as per advice by nephrologist for patients whose kidneys are permanently impaired.
- Hemodialysis is also required and performed in patients having severe but temporary reduction in kidney function.
- It can be performed at hospital only under observation of skilled nephrologists and technical staff.
- Peritoneal dialysis is another modality for dialysis, which is equally effective as haemodialysis.
- Peritoneal dialysis, which is done as a long term therapy for the patient having permanent loss of renal function is called Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD).
- In this process, a rubber tube is inserted in the abdomen and fixed there.
- A peritoneal dialysis solution is infused through tube 3-4 times a day as per advised by a nephrologist.
- The solution remains in abdomen for about 4 hours, removes toxin from blood and after 4 hours, dialysis solution with toxin inside is drained out of abdomen.
- Infusion and draining of peritoneal fluid should be done for 3-4 times a day.
- It is extremely useful in patients without vascular access (AV fistula or long term dialysis catheter).
- It is not suitable for patients who have undergone multiple abdominal surgeries.
CIMS has 6 dialysis workstations and has performed 3322 haemodialysis procedures including 1895(OPD) and 1427(IPD) in the last year (2014).
- Renal Transplant (RT) is the best possible option for patient suffering from End-Stage-Renal-Disease. Legally, near relative that include (father-mother, grandfather-grandmother, brother-sister, son-daughter, and husband-wife) can donate kidneys to one another.
- Such transplant is called “live related renal transplantation”.
- For patients who don’t have well-matched 1st degree relative (near relative) can opt for deceased/ cadaveric renal transplantation. In deceased donor/cadaveric renal transplantation, kidneys are harvested from brain-dead donors and implanted in recipients.
- The 3rd option for Renal Transplant is swap RT for unrelated patients.
- Renal Transplant requires extensive work-up for both recipients and donors before transplantation.
- Patients need to continue necessary medications for rest of his/her life to ensure proper kidney graft function.
- They require lifetime follow-up with nephrologist.
- Under a Renal Transplant operation, new kidney allograft is placed in right lower abdomen without removing original kidney.
CIMS Kidney Transplant Center
We are well-equipped with all necessary resources for a successful renal transplantation which include but not limited to:
- Highly experienced and qualified team of doctors
- Renal transplant programme co-ordinator for counselling sessions for patient and relatives
- Renal Transplant Committee constituted by subject matter experts and key opinion leaders for transparent, non-objectionable ethical review
- Best infection control practices while harvesting kidney to be transplanted and also throughout the procedure.